At least two studies suggested that shorter cleat length was associated with a reduced risk of knee and ankle injuries (Lambson et al, 1996; Robey et al, 1971).
The shoe to surface interface has been strongly correlated with ACL injury (Pope, 2002) such that rubber matting, in combination with rubber-soled shoes was a direct cause of ACL injuries in Australia military recruits. It has also been suggested that such interfaces may indirectly increase risk via changing human movement factors (Letha et al, 2006)
Pope, R. P. (2002). Rubber matting on an obstacle course causes anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and its removal eliminates them. Mil Med, 167(4), 355-358. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11977890
Lambson, R. B., Barnhill, B. S., & Higgins, R. W. (1996). Football cleat design and its effect on anterior cruciate ligament injuries. A three-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med, 24(2), 155-159. doi:10.1177/036354659602400206
Robey, J. M., Blyth, C. S., & Mueller, F. O. (1971). Athletic injuries. Application of epidemiologic methods. Jama, 217(2), 184-189. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5108781
Letha, Y. G., Marjorie, J. A., Elizabeth, A. A., Roald, B., Bruce, D. B., Marlene, D., . . . Bing, Y. (2006). Understanding and Preventing Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Review of the Hunt Valley II Meeting, January 2005. Am J Sports Med, 34(9), 1512-1532. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546506286866